DNA vaccines are antigen-specific immunotherapy, that is safe, cost-effective and can be easily produced.
Genes in DNA vaccines can be designed to encode different tumor antigens as well as various other immunomodulatory molecules to manipulate the resulting immune responses.
In addition, DNA vaccines allow multiple administrations, and their safety profiles have been well established in multiple studies.
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), like dendritic cells, are attracted to the site of injection, where inflammation and cytokines are generated by vaccination.
APCs then capture antigens produced by transfected cells through means like phagocytosis.
These exogenous antigens are then presented by dendritic cells through MHC class II molecules and interact with CD4 + helper T-cells, resulting in the activation of a humoral response.
Alternatively, the captured exogenous antigens can be presented in the context of MHC class I molecules through cross-presentation to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, leading to activation of a cellular immune response.