Personalized DNA Vaccines

  • DNA vaccines are antigen-specific immunotherapy, that is safe, cost-effective and can be easily produced.
  • Genes in DNA vaccines can be designed to encode different tumor antigens as well as various other immunomodulatory molecules to manipulate the resulting immune responses.
  • In addition, DNA vaccines allow multiple administrations, and their safety profiles have been well established in multiple studies.
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), like dendritic cells, are attracted to the site of injection, where inflammation and cytokines are generated by vaccination.


  • APCs then capture antigens produced by transfected cells through means like phagocytosis.
  • These exogenous antigens are then presented by dendritic cells through MHC class II molecules and interact with CD4 + helper T-cells, resulting in the activation of a humoral response.
  • Alternatively, the captured exogenous antigens can be presented in the context of MHC class I molecules through cross-presentation to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, leading to activation of a cellular immune response.